Media survey: the ancient the Great Wall survival worrying the Great Wall has 30% disappear watershed [Abstract] Son of Xishan village Yanqi Town Huairou District Beijing jiushuikeng southwest, two to the Great Wall in this convergence. The confluence point was named "Beijing knot". This section of the Great Wall is also called the Great Wall. Recently, "the most beautiful wild the Great Wall is marble cement road" incident caused public attention on the Great Wall repair work. However, the same need for attention is that over two thousand years of natural damage and man-made destruction, the ancient the Great Wall is in a state of survival. It has been listed as one of the 100 most endangered sites in the world. Although the state departments of cultural relics protection, renovation work has been carried out, but the fact that the Great Wall resources, long, wide line protection, the task is arduous, the traditional way of relying solely on government funding to protect and repair, in terms of capital or human, can fill a need in reality. The protection of the Great Wall needs the participation of the whole society. Visit the Great Wall in October 12, 2015 in Liaoning Suizhong, scarred, the Great Wall is the most beautiful wild repair. The visual map Chinese sunrise gushing, from afar, winding in the mountains of the "dragon" vivid. But it came closer, but it was found that the "dragon" had long been scars. A watershed in Beijing Yanqi Town Son of Xishan village Huairou District jiushuikeng southwest, two to the Great Wall in this convergence. The confluence point was named "Beijing knot". This section of the Great Wall is also called the Great Wall. It is the Ming Dynasty with the inside and outside the Great Wall, and is the dividing area, Chang Ji Town Town, Xuanfu town three military city. In this sense, it has a special status in the the Great Wall in the one and only. The Great Wall East North building, West to nine floor, a total length of 7071 meters, the highest elevation of 1299 meters. This section of the wall complex terrain, Xianfeng processes, insurance, set in a strange and beautiful. The local called "Ying Fei Yang monkey to climb" the difficulty of climbing. Part of the area is almost right angle of 90 degrees, and climbing needs hands and feet. Because of the long-term natural erosion and man-made destruction, some regional wall collapse in the absence, it will climb a cliff suddenly appeared on the road from time to time, without any protective measures, eyes toward the side looking gasped. What is worse, because a part of the whole wall fracture, landslides, or even missing, the original the Great Wall steps were eroded into random stacking luanshidui. There is no way to climb and climb. The man was still almost ninety degrees on the wall, and there was no grip on it. It was an abyss, and a cold sweat was stopped in the place. Can only grasp the barbarous growth shrubs on hand, plastered the walls slowly and horizontally, looking for a way out. Only from the "Ying Fei Yang" to "Beijing" a total length of 700 meters away, full of broken. This section of the Great Wall, the enemy has generally watchtowers cracking, collapse, partial wall collapse, Chengzhuan strangely inserted upright on the road. Along the ground covered with weeds, two meters tall trees have a thick. Careful observation can be found, there is also a part of the collapse of the wall is not a long time, scattered scum is not covered, beside the crunchy walls at any time may continue to collapse, part of a rock brick was demolished. The Great Wall, more than 200 km to the east of the the Great Wall, also has a similar situation. It was built by the governor of Qi Jiguang, which has gone through the years of nearly 500 years. Once, it holds the Central Plains to the north and northeast border thoroughfare Road, is an important node of Ming and Qing Dynasties tribute road, is a section of the Great Wall of Ming dynasty built in the strongest and most spectacular. In the spring of 1933, the Song Zheyuan rate of the 29 army of the national revolutionary army was here to block the Japanese army. At that time, relying on the Great Wall as a cover, the Chinese and Japanese armed forces launched three days and three nights of a sawing war. 29 army five hundred broadsword team moonlighting Japanese resident, most of the heroic sacrifice, which created a "big March". In 2013 29 found the cemetery 5 kilometers distance Panjiakou, about 200 Japanese soldiers stationed on the sacrifice on the rest of this. The story of the war, capable of evoking praises and tears, the the Great Wall carrying heavy Japanese history. However, the Great Wall, deep disrepair predicament. The xifengkou Panjiakou west section of the Great Wall currently walls and towers remaining, inside and outside wall partial collapse and loss, rubble wall core collapse, tile damage loss and are in danger of further deterioration. If there is no repair, the wall will collapse one day even to the site. It is understood that the two the Great Wall paragraphs are the Ming the Great Wall, and all belong to the brick and stone the Great Wall. It is imminent to repair these points. In the predicament, 30% the Great Wall protection has been disappearing in the the Great Wall, and the government’s responsibility is leading. Since 1961, the State Council in Badaling, Shanhaiguan, Jiayuguan ranked the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units, and successively promulgated and implemented the "the Great Wall Protection Ordinance", launched a 10 year "the Great Wall protection project" and other important work for more than half a century, from the central to local levels of government to strengthen the protection of the Great Wall do a lot of work in the Great Wall the overall situation has improved significantly. "But our the Great Wall, save the situation is very worrying." China heritage fund raised the protection of the Great Wall in charge of the project, the protection of the the Great Wall expert Dong Yaohui said in the latest the Great Wall of Ming Dynasty as an example, the Great Wall artificial wall length of 6259.6 km, the well preserved 513.5 kilometers, only 8%; generally preserved 1104.4 kilometers, nearly 20%; lost (refers to the ground remains no deposit has disappeared) 1961.6 kilometers, accounted for 31%. Dong Yaohui pointed out that the cause of such a situation is natural erosion on the one hand, and on the other hand, human factors. Some roads, railways and other construction projects cross the Great Wall, demolished the Great Wall bricks, build houses and pigpen, a few illegal agents steal, sell Ming Dynasty the Great Wall brick, and the popular climbing wild the Great Wall. The Great Wall is located in between and away from the center of town, high mountains and lofty hills Gobi desert, it is very difficult to implement the project, increase the difficulty of protection. The Great Wall has many resources, long face and wide line, and the protection task is arduous. "The Great Wall is too long." Dong Yaohui said that the traditional way of relying solely on the protection and repair of government departments, both from capital and manpower, can not meet the needs of reality.   资金  网络公募探索文保新模式  在互联网+的大背景下,今年9月份开始,由中国文物保护基金会主办的“保护长城,加我一个”长城保护公募项目与腾讯公益慈善基金会合作,通过线上募集与线下筹款相结合的方式,向社会公开筹集资金,对箭扣和喜峰口的两段长城本体进行修缮。 Xifengkou section mainly through online recruitment, offline way, cost estimate of about 23 million yuan; Jiankou mainly used Tencent charity foundation, combined with other Internet companies to the way. The cost is estimated at about 15 million yuan. "This is the first time to use the" Internet + public welfare "in the field of cultural relic protection, which is of great significance. China Cultural Relics Protection Foundation Chairman small Jie Li said. Officials have also expressed their support. Liu Shuguang, deputy director of the State Administration of cultural heritage, pointed out that the public offering activity is not only a positive practice of social forces participating in the preservation of cultural relics, but also an innovative exploration of promoting the integration of Internet and public welfare in the field of literature and art. As of September 25th, the the Great Wall collection online and offline, and public institutions totaling nearly 2 million yuan donation, donations online participation number has reached nearly 70 thousand people. Every day in the fundraising amount and the number of steady growth; the Great Wall renovation funds required, the Tencent has donated 10 million yuan. Liu Shuguang, deputy director of the State Bureau of cultural heritage, said that the state cultural relic bureau is consulting the relevant departments, relying on the Chinese Academy of cultural heritage, to set up the national the Great Wall conservation research center, according to the human resources research center, the the Great Wall protection research center. At the same time, Beijing has recently established the the Great Wall protection volunteer service team. Volunteers will carry out the Great Wall inspections regularly or irregularly, discouraging uncivilized behaviors, finding and reporting the Great Wall destruction and other behaviors in time, and become truly worthy the Great Wall guards. At the same time, Beijing has also opened the the Great Wall protection volunteer recruitment line, hoping to recruit more full-time volunteers from the Great Wall to help more people join this team, and constantly expand the power to protect the Great Wall volunteers. In the future, the respective districts of Beijing will set up the corresponding voluntary teams. At present, the the Great Wall in Beijing has a total of 573 kilometers, distributed in the city’s 6 districts and 2 special zones. The tour of the Great Wall protection volunteers is mainly for the unattended "wild the Great Wall". They will regularly or unregularly patrol these the Great Wall, pick up garbage, eliminate fire and other hidden dangers, in time to dissuade uncivilized behavior. At the same time, when the serious destruction of the Great Wall and other behaviors was reported to the relevant departments immediately, the law enforcement work was carried out with the professional law enforcement team. Dialogue repair uphold the minimum intervention principle of the JINGWAH times: how to avoid "the damage caused by protective repair"? Dong Yaohui: the repair of these two sections of the the Great Wall will uphold the principle of minimum intervention, properly protect the authenticity, integrity and vicissitude of the Great Wall, and show the thick cultural connotation of the Great Wall. The so-called minimum intervention principle, popularly speaking, is that after renovation, besides the exclusion of wall danger, the public is still not feeling the same on the whole. The two section of the Great Wall are included in the State Administration of cultural heritage "in 13th Five-Year" during the key renovation plan, the State Administration of cultural heritage will also give technical guidance and financial support. JINGWAH times: how to use and manage the funds raised? Dong Yaohui: the fund raising will be used for public welfare purposes. 94% of them are used for the renovation of the the Great Wall body, and 6% for the project operation. The funds will be managed by the China Heritage Conservation Foundation. The collection and use will be publicized to the public at the China Heritage Protection Foundation WeChat public number and Tencent public welfare platform. The donor can give advice and advice to the foundation, and any suggestion will be given specific feedback. The JINGWAH times: once the donation is involved, the donor has a closer link with the the Great Wall. What do they do to climb "wild the Great Wall" out of concern? Dong Yaohui: these two sections of the Great Wall are not open to the requirements of the "wild the Great Wall". Before the emergency reinforcement, tens of thousands of people involved in the fundraising will climb, which will cause man-made harm to the the Great Wall. Considering this, Paul foundation will organize donations to participate in the Great Wall environmental action, and "feeling, experience a sense of" public welfare activities. For example, invite some donors, donors fired the Great Wall brick regardless of the number of donations will be China Heritage Fund "Friends of the Great Wall", through the network open communication protection of the Great Wall knowledge and the Great Wall historical stories of the public platform, provide a variety of channels such as close to the Great Wall donors. JINGWAH times: will the two sections of the Great Wall be open after the completion of the the Great Wall repair? Dong Yaohui: our present stage is not an open – up repair, but a danger of emergency reinforcement. It was mainly to stop the damage to the two the Great Wall in danger. The participation of the news link social forces in the the Great Wall protection has a precedent social force to participate in the Great Wall protection, which is traditional in our country. More than 30 years ago, the inscription of Deng Xiaoping and Xi Zhongxun of the party and state leaders, "love me China, repair my the Great Wall", set off a donation to repair the Great Wall’s global Chinese actions, creating the situation of the Great Wall protection management and social forces participation. In recent years, the active participation of social organizations, volunteers and news media has made a positive contribution to the protection of the Great Wall. More than 3400 guards along the the Great Wall are a force that can not be ignored and irreplaceable in daily inspection. (the former is entitled "the government’s efforts to protect the social forces of the Great Wall") (JINGWAH times)

媒体调查:古长城生存状况堪忧 明长城已有三成消失 [摘要]北京怀柔区雁栖镇西栅子村旧水坑西南的分水岭,两个走向的长城在此汇合。这个汇合点被命名为“北京结”。此段长城也被称为箭扣长城。  近日,“最美野长城被修成水泥路”事件引发公众对长城修复工作的广泛关注。然而同样需要关注的是,两千余年的自然损毁和人为破坏,使得古长城生存状况堪忧,被列为全球100处最濒危遗址之一。尽管国家文物部门保护、修缮的工作一直在展开,但事实证明,长城资源点多、面长、线广,保护任务艰巨,传统单纯依靠政府部门拨款保护、修缮的方式,无论从资金还是人力来说,都无法满足现实的需要。长城的保护更需要全社会的参与。  探访  箭扣长城伤痕累累  2015年10月12日,辽宁绥中,最美野长城被修缮。 视觉中国 资料图日出喷薄,远远望去,蜿蜒在山间的“巨龙”生动起来。但走近了,却发现“巨龙”早已伤痕累累。  北京怀柔区雁栖镇西栅子村旧水坑西南的分水岭,两个走向的长城在此汇合。这个汇合点被命名为“北京结”。此段长城也被称为箭扣长城。它是明代内外长城的交结点,又是蓟镇、昌镇、宣府镇三大军事重镇的分界地区。从这个意义讲,它在整个万里长城中具有独一无二的特殊地位。  箭扣长城东起正北楼,西至九眼楼,全长7071米,最高海拔1299米。此段墙体地形复杂,险峰突起,集险、奇、美于一身。当地人称“鹰飞倒仰猴难攀”可见其攀爬的难度。部分区域几乎达到90度直角,攀爬需要手脚并用。因为长期自然侵蚀和人为破坏,有的区域垛口墙倒塌缺失,这样就会在攀爬的路上不时突然出现一段悬崖,没有任何防护措施,眼睛往旁边一望不禁倒抽一口凉气。  更糟糕的是,因为一部分墙体整体断裂、滑坡、甚至缺失,原本的长城台阶被侵蚀成胡乱堆叠的乱石堆。爬着爬着便没有路了。人还几乎九十度扒在城墙上,往上没有抓手,往下便是深渊,停在原地惊出一身冷汗。只能抓着手边野蛮生长的灌木,胆战心惊地贴着城墙缓缓横向移动,寻找出路。仅从“鹰飞倒仰”到“北京结”总长700多米的路程内,满眼残破。这段长城的敌楼、敌台已普遍开裂、坍塌,部分垛口墙坍塌下来,城砖怪异地立着插在路上。沿途地面长满杂草、两米多高的树木已经有碗口粗。仔细观察可以发现,也有一部分墙体倒塌的时间并不长,散落的渣子还没有被覆盖,旁边酥散的边墙随时有继续倒塌的可能,部分条石城砖等被拆毁。  箭扣长城向东200多公里的喜峰口长城,也有着类似的境遇。它由戚继光督建而成,已历经近500年的岁月。曾经,它扼守着中原通往北疆和东北边陲的咽喉要道,是明清商道、贡道的重要结点,是明长城中修建得最坚固、最壮观的一段。1933年春天,国民革命军29军宋哲元率部在此阻击日军。当时依托长城为掩体,中日两军展开三天三夜的拉锯战。29军五百大刀队夜袭日军驻地,大部分壮烈牺牲,据此创作了《大刀进行曲》。2013年距离潘家口5公里处发现29军墓地,大约有200名夜袭日军驻地牺牲的将士长眠于此。这段可歌可泣的抗战故事,使喜峰口长城承载了厚重的抗日历史。  然而如今的喜峰口长城,深陷年久失修的困境中。其中喜峰口西潘家口段长城目前城墙和敌台残存,内外侧砖墙局部坍塌和缺失、毛石墙芯局部坍塌,地面砖残损缺失并且有进一步恶化的危险。如再不修,墙体某日坍塌甚至会沦为遗址。  据了解,这两处长城段落,都是明长城,且都属于砖石长城。对这些点段进行维修迫在眉睫。  困境  明长城已有三成消失  长城保护,政府责任为主导。自1961年国务院将八达岭、山海关、嘉峪关名列第一批全国重点文物保护单位,并陆续颁布实施《长城保护条例》、启动为期10年的“长城保护工程”等重要工作的半个多世纪以来,从中央到地方各级政府为加强长城保护做了大量工作,长城总体保护状况有了明显改善。  “但我们的万里长城,保存状况十分堪忧。”中国文物保护基金会长城保护公募项目负责人,长城保护专家董耀会说,以距今最近的明长城为例,明长城人工墙体长度为6259.6公里,目前保存较好的513.5公里,只有8%;保存一般的1104.4公里,近20%;已消失的(已消失是指地面遗迹不存)1961.6公里,占到31%。  董耀会指出,造成这样状况的原因一方面是自然侵蚀,另一方面是人为因素。一些公路、铁路等建设工程穿越长城,拆长城砖盖房子、搭猪圈,少数违法分子偷盗、贩卖明代长城文字砖,还有时下流行的攀爬野长城。加之长城现多位于远离中心城镇的崇山峻岭、戈壁荒漠之间,工程实施十分困难,增加了保护难度。长城资源点多、面长、线广,保护任务艰巨。“长城太长了。”董耀会说,传统单纯依靠政府部门拨款保护、修缮的方式,无论从资金还是人力来说,都无法满足现实的需要。  资金  网络公募探索文保新模式  在互联网+的大背景下,今年9月份开始,由中国文物保护基金会主办的“保护长城,加我一个”长城保护公募项目与腾讯公益慈善基金会合作,通过线上募集与线下筹款相结合的方式,向社会公开筹集资金,对箭扣和喜峰口的两段长城本体进行修缮。喜峰口段主要通过网上募集,辅以线下劝募,费用估算约2300万元;箭扣段主要采取腾讯公益慈善基金会为主,联合其他互联网企业共同捐资的方式进行。费用估算约为1500万元。  “这是文物保护领域第一次采用‘互联网+公益’方式进行公募,具有重要意义。”中国文物保护基金会理事长励小捷说。  官方也对此表示了支持。国家文物局副局长刘曙光指出,此次公募活动既是社会力量参与文物保护的积极实践,也是文博领域促进“互联网+公益”融合的创新探索。  截至9月25日,喜峰口长城募捐线上、线下,公众和机关单位共计捐款近200万元,线上参与募捐人数已达近7万人。筹款金额和人数每天都在平稳增长;箭扣长城修缮所需资金,腾讯方面已经领捐1000万元。  人力  研究组建长城保护研究中心  国家文物局副局长刘曙光透露,国家文物局正在协商有关部门,依托中国文化遗产研究院组建国家级长城保护研究中心。  与此同时,北京目前新近成立了长城保护志愿服务总队。志愿者们将定期或不定期地开展长城巡查,劝阻不文明行为,及时发现并上报破坏长城等行为,成为名副其实的长城卫士。同时,北京也开通了长城保护志愿者招募专线,希望通过招募长城专职志愿者,能带动更多人加入这支队伍,不断壮大保护长城志愿者的力量。未来,北京各个区还将分别成立相应的志愿分队。  目前,北京辖区内的长城共有573公里,分布在全市6个区和2个特区范围内。长城保护志愿者的巡查主要针对那些无人看管的“野长城”进行。他们将定期或不定期地对这些长城开展巡查,捡拾垃圾,排除火灾等隐患,及时劝阻不文明行为等。同时,发现严重破坏长城等行为时立刻向相关部门上报,配合专业执法队开展执法工作。  对话  修缮秉持最小干预原则  京华时报:如何才能避免“保护性修缮造成的破坏”?  董耀会:我们这两段长城的修缮将秉持最小干预原则,妥善保护长城的真实性、完整性和沧桑古朴的历史风貌,展现长城厚重的文化内涵。所谓的最小干预原则,通俗地讲就是经过修缮之后,除了排除了墙体险情,公众整体上感觉还是没有修过的风貌。这两段长城都纳入了国家文物局“十三五”期间重点修缮计划,国家文物局还将给予项目技术指导和资金支持。  京华时报:募集到的资金如何使用、管理?  董耀会:募集资金将全部用于公益目的。其中94%用于长城本体修缮,6%用于项目运行。资金由中国文物保护基金会管理,募集和使用情况会及时在中国文物保护基金会微信公众号和腾讯公益平台上向公众公示,接受社会监督。捐款人可以向基金会提出意见和建议,任何建议都将得到具体反馈。  京华时报:一旦参与捐款,捐款人便和长城有了更为紧密的联系。出于关心,他们都来爬“野长城”怎么办?  董耀会:这两段长城均未达到开放的要求,属于“野长城”。在未抢险加固前,如果几万名参与募捐的人都来攀爬,对长城将造成人为的伤害。考虑到这一点,文保基金会将组织捐款者参与长城环保行动,以及有“获得感、体验感”的公益活动。比如邀请部分捐款者烧制长城砖、捐款人无论捐款多少都将成为中国文物保护基金会“长城之友”、通过网络开辟传播长城保护知识和长城历史故事的公共平台,为捐赠者提供多种亲近长城的渠道等。  京华时报:这两段长城修完之后会开放吗?  董耀会:我们目前阶段不是以开放为目的的修缮,而是属于抢险加固。主要是为了让身处危险中的两段长城停止受到损害。  新闻链接  社会力量参与长城保护有先例  社会力量参与长城保护,在我国是有传统的。30多年前,党和国家领导人邓小平、习仲勋的题词“爱我中华,修我长城”,掀起一场捐资修复保护长城的全球华人行动,开创了长城保护管理社会  力量参与的局面。近年来,社会组织、志愿者、新闻媒体等积极参与,为长城保护作出了积极贡献。长城沿线的3400多名保护员,在日常巡查方面,是一支不容忽视、难以替代的力量。  (原题为《政府保护长城需社会力量助力》)(京华时报)相关的主题文章: